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2011年4月13日托福TPO阅读训练营作业

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摘要:Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States (OG Test1) The development of the modern presidency in the United States began with Andrew Jackson who swept to power in 1829 at the head of the Democratic Party and served until 1837. During

Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States (OG Test1)



The development of the modern presidency in the United States began with Andrew Jackson who swept to power in 1829 at the head of the Democratic Party and served until 1837. During his administration, he immeasurably enlarged the power of the presidency. "The President is the direct representative of the American people," he lectured the Senate when it opposed him. "He was elected by the people, and is responsible to them." With this declaration, Jackson redefined the character of the presidential office and its relationship to the people.

During Jackson's second term, his opponents had gradually come together to form the Whig party. Whigs and Democrats held different attitudes toward the changes brought about by the market, banks, and commerce. The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between "the people”-farmers, planters, and workers-and a set of greedy aristocrats. This "paper money aristocracy" of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation's virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, unearned wealth. The Democrats wanted the rewards of the market without sacrificing the features of a simple agrarian republic. They wanted the wealth that the market offered without the competitive, changing society; the complex dealing; the dominance of urban centers; and the loss of independence that came with it.

Whigs, on the other hand, were more comfortable with the market. For them, commerce and economic development were agents of civilization. Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farmers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other. Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity. The government's responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability.

Whigs and Democrats differed not only in their attitudes toward the market but also about how active the central government should be in people's lives. Despite Andrew Jackson's inclination to be a strong President, Democrats as a rule believed in limited government. Government's role in the economy was to promote competition by destroying monopolies' and special privileges. In keeping with this philosophy of limited government, Democrats also rejected the idea that moral beliefs were the proper sphere of government action. Religion and politics, they believed, should be kept clearly separate, and they generally opposed humanitarian legislation.

The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity. Indeed, for Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy. In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country. They were much more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.

In some ways the social makeup of the two parties was similar. To be competitive in winning votes, Whigs and Democrats both had to have significant support among farmers, the largest group in society, and workers. Neither party could win an election by appealing exclusively to the rich or the poor. The Whigs, however, enjoyed disproportionate strength among the business and commercial classes. Whigs appealed to planters who needed credit to finance their cotton and rice trade in the world market, to farmers who were eager to sell their surpluses, and to workers who wished to improve themselves.

Democrats attracted farmers isolated from the market or uncomfortable with it, workers alienated from the emerging industrial system, and rising entrepreneurs who wanted to break monopolies and open the economy to newcomers like themselves. The Whigs were strongest in the towns, cities, and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy, whereas Democrats dominated areas of semisubsistence farming that were more isolated and languishing economically.



[Passage End]


[Question]



Paragraph 1: The development of the modern presidency in the United States began with Andrew Jackson who swept to power in 1829 at the head of the Democratic Party and served until 1837. During his administration, he immeasurablyenlarged the power of the presidency. "The President is the direct representative of the American people," he lectured the Senate when it opposed him. "He was elected by the people, and is responsible to them." With this declaration, Jackson redefined the character of the presidential office and its relationship to the people.

1. The word immeasurably in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Frequently
 Greatly
 Rapidly
 Reportedly

2. According to paragraph 1, the presidency of Andrew Jackson was especially significant for which of the following reasons?
 The President granted a portion of his power to the Senate.
 The President began to address the Senate on a regular basis.
 It was the beginning of the modern presidency in the United States.
 It was the first time that the Senate had been known to oppose the President.

Paragraph 2: During Jackson's second term, his opponents had gradually come together to form the Whig party. Whigs and Democrats held different attitudes toward the changes brought about by the market, banks, and commerce. The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between "the people”-farmers, planters, and workers-and a set of greedy aristocrats. This "paper money aristocracy" of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation's virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, unearned wealth. The Democrats wanted the rewards of the market without sacrificing the features of a simple agrarian republic. They wanted the wealth that the market offered without the competitive, changing society; the complex dealing; the dominance of urban centers; and the loss of independence that came with it.

3. The author mentions bankers and investors in the passage as an example of which of the following?
 The Democratic Party's main source of support
 The people that Democrats claimed were unfairly becoming rich
 The people most interested in a return to a simple agrarian republic
 One of the groups in favor of Andrew Jackson's presidency

Paragraph 3: Whigs, on the other hand, were more comfortable with the market. For them, commerce and economic development were agents of civilization. Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farmers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other. Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity. The government's responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability.

4. According to paragraph 3, Whigs believed that commerce and economic development would have which of the following effects on society?
 They would promote the advancement of society as a whole.
 They would cause disagreements between Whigs and Democrats
 They would supply new positions for Whig Party members.
 They would prevent conflict between farmers and workers.

5. According to paragraph 3, which of the following describes the Whig Party's view of the role of government?
 To regulate the continuing conflict between farmers and businesspeople
 To restrict the changes brought about by the market
 To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit
 To reduce the emphasis on economic development

Paragraph 4: Whigs and Democrats differed not only in their attitudes toward the market but also about how active the central government should be in people's lives. Despite Andrew Jackson's inclination to be a strong President, Democrats as a rule believed in limited government. Government's role in the economy was to promote competition by destroying monopolies' and special privileges. In keeping with this philosophy of limited government, Democrats also rejected the idea that moral beliefs were the proper sphere of government action. Religion and politics, they believed, should be kept clearly separate, and they generally opposed humanitarian legislation.

6. The word inclination in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Argument
 Tendency
 Example
 Warning

7. According to paragraph 4, a Democrat would be most likely to support government action in which of the following areas?
 Creating a state religion
 Supporting humanitarian legislation
 Destroying monopolies
 Recommending particular moral beliefs

Paragraph 5: The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity. Indeed, for Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy. In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country. They were much more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.

8. The word concept in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Power
 Reality

 Difficulty
 Idea

9. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 5 about variations in political beliefs within the Whig Party?
 They were focused on issues of public liberty.
 They caused some members to leave the Whig party.
 They were unimportant to most Whigs.
 They reflected regional interests.

Paragraph 6: In some ways the social makeup of the two parties was similar. To be competitive in winning votes, Whigs and Democrats both had to have significant support among farmers, the largest group in society, and workers. Neither party could win an election by appealing exclusively to the rich or the poor. The Whigs, however, enjoyed disproportionate strength among the business and commercial classes. Whigs appealed to planters who needed credit to finance their cotton and rice trade in the world market, to farmers who were eager to sell their surpluses, and to workers who wished to improve themselves. Democrats attracted farmers isolated from the market or uncomfortable with it, workers alienated from the emerging industrial system, and rising entrepreneurs who wanted to break monopolies and open the economy to newcomers like themselves. The Whigs were strongest in the towns, cities, and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy, whereas Democrats dominated areas of semisubsistence farming that were more isolated and languishing economically.

10. According to paragraph 6, the Democrats were supported by all of the following groups EXCEPT
 workers unhappy with the new industrial system
 planters involved in international trade
 rising entrepreneurs
 individuals seeking to open the economy to newcomers

11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
 Whigs were able to attract support only in the wealthiest parts of the economy because Democrats dominated in other areas.
 Whig and Democratic areas of influence were naturally split between urban and rural areas, respectively.
 The semisubsistence farming areas dominated by Democrats became increasingly isolated by the Whigs' control of the market economy.
 The Democrats' power was greatest in poorer areas while the Whigs were strongest in those areas where the market was already fully operating.

Paragraph 2: During Jackson's second term, his opponents had gradually come together to form the Whig party. █Whigs and Democrats held different attitudes toward the changes brought about by the market, banks, and commerce. █The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between "the people”-farmers, planters, and workers-and a set of greedy aristocrats. █This "paper money aristocracy" of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation's virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, unearned wealth. █The Democrats wanted the rewards of the market without sacrificing the features of a simple agrarian republic. They wanted the wealth that the market offered without the competitive, changing society; the complex dealing; the dominance of urban centers; and the loss of independence that came with it.
12. Look at the four squares II that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
This new party argued against the policies of Jackson and his party in a number of important areas, beginning with the economy.
Where would the sentence best fit?
 1
 2
 3
 4

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
To review passage, Click View Text
The political system of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century was strongly influenced by the social and economic circumstances of the time.




Answer Choices
 The Democratic and Whig Parties developed in response to the needs of competing economic and political constituencies.
 During Andrew Jackson's two terms as President, he served as leader of both the Democratic and Whig Parties.
 The Democratic Party primarily represented the interests of the market, banks, and commerce.
 In contrast to the Democrats, the Whigs favored government aid for education.
 A fundamental difference between Whigs and Democrats involved the importance of the market in society.
 The role of government in the lives of the people was an important political distinction between the two parties






The Expression of Emotions (OG Test1)



Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language.

Most investigators concur that certain facial expressions suggest the same emotions in all people. Moreover, people in diverse cultures recognize the emotions manifested by the facial expressions. In classic research Paul Ekman took photographs of people exhibiting the emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. He then asked people around the world to indicate what emotions were being depicted in them. Those queried ranged from European college students to members of the Fore, a tribe that dwells in the New Guinea highlands. All groups, including the Fore, who had almost no contact with Western culture, agreed on the portrayed emotions. The Fore also displayed familiar facial expressions when asked how they would respond if they were the characters in stories that called for basic emotional responses. Ekman and his colleagues more recently obtained similar results in a study of ten cultures in which participants were permitted to report that multiple emotions were shown by facial
expressions. The participants generally agreed on which two emotions were being shown and which emotion was more intense.

Psychological researchers generally recognize that facial expressions reflect emotional states. In fact, various emotional states give rise to certain patterns of electrical activity in the facial muscles and in the brain. The facial-feedback hypothesis argues, however, that the causal relationship between emotions and facial expressions can also work in the opposite direction. According to this hypothesis, signals from the facial muscles ("feedback) are sent back to emotion centers of the brain, and so a person's facial expression can influence that person's emotional state. Consider Darwin's words: "The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it. On the other hand, the repression, as far as possible, of all outward signs softens our emotions." Can smiling give rise to feelings of good will, for example, and frowning to anger?

Psychological research has given rise to some interesting findings concerning the facial-feedback hypothesis. Causing participants in experiments to smile, for example, leads them to report more positive feelings and to rate cartoons (humorous drawings of people or situations) as being more humorous. When they are caused to frown, they rate cartoons as being more aggressive.
What are the possible links between facial expressions and emotion? One link is arousal, which is the level of activity or preparedness for activity in an organism. Intense contraction of facial muscles, such as those used in signifying fear, heightens arousal. Self-perception of heightened arousal then leads to heightened emotional activity. Other links may involve changes in brain temperature and the release of neurotransmitters (substances that transmit nerve impulses.) The contraction of facial muscles both influences the internal emotional state and reflects it. Ekman has found that the so-called Duchenne smile, which is characterized by ''crow’s feet" wrinkles around the eyes and a subtle drop in the eye cover fold so that the skin above the eye moves down slightly toward the eyeball, can lead to pleasant feelings.

Ekman’s observation may be relevant to the British expression “keep a stiff upper lip” as a recommendation for handling stress. It might be that a “stiff” lip suppresses emotional response -- as long as the lip is not quivering with fear or tension. But when the emotion that leads to stiffening the lip is more intense, and involves strong muscle tension, facial feedback may heighten emotional response.

[Passage End]


[Question]



Paragraph 1:Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language.

1. The word despondent in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Curious
 Unhappy
 Thoughtful
 Uncertain

2. The author mentions "Baring the teeth in a hostile way" in order to
 Differentiate one possible meaning of a particular facial expression from other meanings of it
 Support Darwin's theory of evolution
 Provide an example of a facial expression whose meaning is widely understood
 Contrast a facial expression that is easily understood with other facial expressions

Paragraph 2: Most investigators concur that certain facial expressions suggest the same emotions in all people. Moreover, people in diverse cultures recognize the emotions manifested by the facial expressions. In classic research Paul Ekman took photographs of people exhibiting the emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. He then asked people around the world to indicate what emotions were being depicted in them. Those queried ranged from European college students to members of the Fore, a tribe that dwells in the New Guinea highlands. All groups, including the Fore, who had almost no contact with Western culture, agreed on the portrayed emotions. The Fore also displayed familiar facial expressions when asked how they would respond if they were the characters in stories that called for basic emotional responses. Ekman and his colleagues more recently obtained similar results in a study of ten cultures in which participants were permitted to report that multiple emotions were shown by facial expressions. The participants generally agreed on which two emotions were being shown and which emotion was more intense.

3. The word concur in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Estimate
 Agree
 Expect
 Understand

4. The word them in the passage refers to
 Emotions
 People
 Photographs
 Cultures

5. According to paragraph 2, which of the following was true of the Fore people of New Guinea?
 They did not want to be shown photographs.
 They were famous for their story-telling skills.
 They knew very little about Western culture.
 They did not encourage the expression of emotions.

6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
 The Fore's facial expressions indicated their unwillingness to pretend to be story characters.
 The Fore was asked to display familiar facial expressions when they told their stories.
 The Fore exhibited the same relationship of facial expressions and basic emotions that is seen in Western culture when they acted out stories.
 The Fore was familiar with the facial expressions and basic emotions of characters in stories.

Paragraph 3: Psychological researchers generally recognize that facial expressions reflect emotional states. In fact, various emotional states give rise to certain patterns of electrical activity in the facial muscles and in the brain. The facial-feedback hypothesis argues, however, that the causal relationship between emotions and facial expressions can also work in the opposite direction. According to this hypothesis, signals from the facial muscles ("feedback) are sent back to emotion centers of the brain, and so a person's facial expression can influence that person's emotional state. Consider Darwin's words: "The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it. On the other hand, the repression, as far as possible, of all outward signs softens our emotions." Can smiling give rise to feelings of good will, for example, and frowning to anger?

7. According to the passage, what did Darwin believe would happen to human emotions that were not expressed?
 They would become less intense.
 They would last longer than usual.
 They would cause problems later.
 They would become more negative

Paragraph 4;Psychological research has given rise to some interesting findings concerning the facial-feedback hypothesis. Causing participants in experiments to smile, for example, leads them to report more positive feelings and torate cartoons (humorous drawings of people or situations) as being more humorous. When they are caused to frown, they rate cartoons as being more aggressive.

8. According to the passage, research involving which of the following supported the facial-feedback hypothesis?
 The reactions of people in experiments to cartoons
 The tendency of people in experiments to cooperate
 The release of neurotransmitters by people during experiments
 The long-term effects of repressing emotions

9. The word rate in the passage is closest in meaning to  Judge
 Judge
 Reject
 Draw
 Want

Paragraph 6: Ekman’s observation may be relevant to the British expression “keep a stiff upper lip” as a recommendation for handling stress. It might be that a “stiff” lip suppresses emotional response -- as long as the lip is not quivering with fear or tension. But when the emotion that leads to stiffening the lip is more intense, and involves strong muscle tension, facial feedback may heighten emotional response.

10. The word relevant in the passage is closest in meaning to
 Contradictory
 Confusing
 Dependent
 Applicable

11. According to the passage, stiffening the upper lip may have which of the following effects?
 It first suppresses stress, and then intensifies it.
 It may cause fear and tension in those who see it.
 It can damage the lip muscles.
 It may either heighten or reduce emotional response.

Paragraph 2: █Most investigators concur that certain facial expressions suggest the same emotions in all people. █Moreover, people in diverse cultures recognize the emotions manifested by the facial expressions. █In classic research Paul Ekman took photographs of people exhibiting the emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. █He then asked people around the world to indicate what emotions were being depicted in them. Those queried ranged from European college students to members of the Fore, a tribe that dwells in the New Guinea highlands. All groups, including the Fore, who had almost no contact with Western culture, agreed on the portrayed emotions. The Fore also displayed familiar facial expressions when asked how they would respond if they were the characters in stories that called for basic emotional responses. Ekman and his colleagues more recently obtained similar results in a study of ten cultures in which participants were permitted to report that multiple emotions were shown by facial expressions. The participants generally agreed on which two emotions were being shown and which emotion was more intense.

12. Look at the four squares █ that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
This universality in the recognition of emotions was demonstrated by using rather simple methods.
Where would the sentence best fit?
 1
 2
 3
 4

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.
Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

To review passage, Click View Text
Psychological research seems to confirm that people associate particular facial expressions with the same emotions across cultures.



Answer Choices
 Artificially producing the Duchenne smile can cause a person to have pleasant feelings.
 Facial expressions and emotional states interact with each other through a variety of feedback mechanisms.
 People commonly believe that they can control their facial expressions so that their true emotions remain hidden.
 A person's facial expression may reflect the person's emotional state.
 Ekman argued that the ability to accurately recognize the emotional content of facial expressions was valuable for human beings.
 Facial expressions that occur as a result of an individual's emotional state may themselves feedback information that influences the person's emotions.



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