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托福TPO真题阅读营4月12日作业答案

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摘要:Artisans and Industrialization 参考答案: 1. ○3 This is an Inference question asking for an inferencethat can be supported by the passage. The correct answer is choice 3,They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed

Artisans and Industrialization

 

 

参考答案:

1. ○3

This is an Inference question asking for an inferencethat can be supported by the passage. The correct answer is choice 3,"They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed ofproduction." A number of statements throughout the passage support choice3. Paragraph 1 states that "Before 1815 manufacturing in the United Stateshad been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans . . . After 18 15 thisolder form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinerytended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers." Paragraph 2 states that"Before the rise of the factory . . . skilled artisans did not work by theclock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating withmore leisurely time." Paragraph 3 states, "The factory changed that.Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done byhand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates ofproductivity."

Taken together, these three statements, aboutproduction rates, the rise of factories after 18 15, and the decline ofcraftsmanship after 18 15, support the inference that before 18 15, theemphasis had been on quality rather than on speed of production. Answer choices1, 2, and 4 are all contradicted by the passage.

 

2. ○2

This is a Sentence Simplification question. As withall of these items, a single sentence in the passage is highlighted:

Apprentices were considered part of the family, andmasters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade butalso for providing them some education and for supervising their moralbehavior.

The correct answer is choice 2. Choice 2 contains allof the essential information in thehighlighted sentence. The highlighted sentence explains why (part of thefamily) and how (education, moral behavior) a master's responsibility went beyondteaching a trade. The essential information is the fact that the master's responsibilitywent beyond teaching a trade. Therefore, choice 2 contains all that isessential without changing the meaning of the highlighted sentence.

Choice 1 changes the meaning of the highlightedsentence b~ stating that masters often treated apprentices irresponsibly.

Choice 3 contradicts the essential meaning of thehighlighted sentence. The fact that "Apprentices were considered part ofthe family . . . " suggests that they were not actual family members.

Choice 4, like choice 3, changes the meaning of thehighlighted sentence by discussing family members as apprentices.

 

3. ○4

This is a Vocabulary question. The word being testedis disrupted. It is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 4,"upset." The word "upset" here is used in the context of"hurting productivity." When something is hurt or damaged, it is"upset."

 

 

4. ○1

This is a Factual Information question asking forspecific information that can be found in paragraph 4. The correct answer ischoice I, "support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust toworking in factories." The paragraph begins by stating that workers didnot adopt new attitudes toward work easily and that the clock symbolized thenew work rules. The author provides the quotation as evidence of thatdifficulty. There is no indication in the paragraph that workers quit due toloud noise, so choice 2 is incorrect. Choice 3 (usefulness of clocks) is contradictedby the paragraph. The factory clock was "useful," but workers hated it.Choice 4 (workers complaints as a cause of a factory's success) is notdiscussed in this paragraph.

 

5. ○4

This is a Negative Factual Information question askingfor specific information that can be found in paragraph 4. Choice 4,"contact among workers who were not managers," is the correct answer.The paragraph explicitly contradicts this by stating that "factoriessharply separated workers from management." The paragraph explicitlystates that workers lost choice I (freedom), choice 2 (status in thecommunity), and choice 3 (opportunities for advancement) in the new system, sothose choices are all incorrect.

 

6. ○1

This is a Vocabulary question. The phrase being testedis "gathered some momentum." It is highlighted in the passage. Thecorrect answer is choice I, "made progress." To "gathermomentum" means to advance with increasing speed.

 

7. ○1

This is a Vocabulary question. The word being testedis spearheaded. It is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice1, "led." The head of a spear leads the rest of the spear, so thecrafts workers who "spearheaded" this movement led it.

 

8. ○3

This is a Factual Information question asking forspecific information that can be found in paragraph 5. The correct answer ischoice 3, "It was slow to improve conditions for workers." Theparagraph states, "More than a decade of agitation did finally bring aworkday shortened to 10 hours to most industries by the 1850's, and the courtsalso recognized workers' right to strike, but these gains had little immediateimpact." This statement explicitly supports choice 3. All three other choicesare contradicted by the paragraph.

 

9. ○2

This is a Factual Information question asking forspecific information about a particular phrase in the passage. The phrase inquestion is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 2,"created divisions among workers." The paragraph states (emphasisadded): " . . . they (workers) were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms,gender; conflicting religious perspectives, occupational differences, politicalpart loyalties, and disagreements over tactics." So "political partyloyalties and disagreements over tactics'' are explicitly stared as two causesof division among workers. The other choices are not stated and are incorrect.

 

10. ○1

This is a Reference question. The word being tested isthem. It is highlighted in the passage. This is a simple pronoun-referent item.The word them in this sentence refers to those people to whom "the factoryand industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss ofindependence and a measure of control over their lives." Choice 1,"Workers," is the only choice that refers to this type of person, soit is the correct answer.

 

11. ○4

This is an Insert Text question. You can see the fourblack squares in paragraph 1 that represent the possible answer choices here.

Before 1815 manufacturing in theUnited States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledgeof their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homespart-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchantcapitalists. W After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way tofactories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities,and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factoryproduction.

 

The sentence provided, "This new form of manufacturing depended on the movement of goods todistant locations and a centralized source of laborers," is bestinserted at square 4. The inserted sentence refers explicitly to "a newform of manufacturing." This "new form of manufacturing" is theone mentioned in the sentence preceding square 4, "factories withmachinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers." The insertedsentence then explains that this new system depended on "the movement ofgoods to distant locations and a centralized source of laborers." Thesentence that follows square 4 goes on to say, "Cheap transportationnetworks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit allstimulated the shift to factory production." Thus the inserted sentence containsreferences to both the sentence before square 4 and the sentence after square4. This is not true of any of the other possible insert points, so square 4 is thecorrect answer.

 

12.Before 1815: 2, 6


1815-1850: 3, 5, 7

This is a Fill in a Table question. It is completedcorrectly below. The correct choices for the "Before 18 15" columnare 2 and 6. Choices 3, 5, and 7 belong in the "1815-1 850" column.Choices 1 and 4 should not be used in either column.

 

 

 

 

参考答案1.
2This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is enhance. It ishighlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 2,"improve." To enhance something means to "make it better."If something has been "improved," it has been made better. 2. ○2This is a Reference question. The word being tested is they. It ishighlighted in the passage. Choice 2, "fins," is the correct answer.This is a simple pronoun-referent item. The word they refers to something thatlies flush with the body when not in use. This is true only of"fins." 3. ○ 4This is a Rhetorical Purpose question. It asks why the author mentionsthat "Airplanes retract their landing gear while in flight." Thephrase being tested is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice4, "To demonstrate a similarity in design between certain fishes andairplanes." The paragraph in which the highlighted phrase appearsdescribes how certain fish use their fins. The highlighted phrase is used toprovide a more familiar example (airplanes) of the principle involved to helpthe reader visualize how fins work. The paragraph does not discuss airplanes inany other context, so choices 2 and 3 are incorrect. Air and water resistanceare not mentioned in this paragraph, so choice 1 is incorrect. 4. ○ 1This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is sophisticated. Itis high lighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 1,"complex." If something is sophisticated, it is "notsimple," so it must be "complex." 5. ○ 4This is a Factual Information question asking for specific informationthat can be found in paragraph 4. The correct answer is choice 4,"reducing water resistance as they swim." The overall theme of thepassage is how certain fish swim so efficiently. Paragraphs 1 and 2 make thegeneral statement that "practically every aspect of the body form andfunction of these swimming 'machines' is adapted to enhance their ability toswim. Many of the adaptations of these fishes serve to reduce water resistance(drag)." Paragraph 4 explicitly states (emphasis added) that "Tunas,mackerels, and billfishes have even more sophisticated adaptations than theseto improve their hydrodynamics. The long bill of marlins, sailfishes, andswordfish probably helps them slip through the water." This is a specificexample of one adaptation that these fish have made to increase their swimmingefficiency. None of the other choices is mentioned in the paragraph. 6. ○ 1This is a Factual Information question asking for specific informationthat can be found in the passage. The correct answer is choice 1, "Theylack a swim bladder." Paragraph 6 explicitly states ". . . tunas mustswim to breathe. They must also keep swimming to keep from sinking, since mosthale largely or completely lost the swim bladder . . ." The other choicesare not supported by the passage. 7. ○ 4 This is a Sentence Simplification question. As with all of these items, asingle sentence in the passage is highlighted:One potential problem isthat opening the mouth to breathe detracts from thestreamlining of thesefishes and tends to slow them down.The correct answer is choice 4. That choice contains all of the essentialideas in the highlighted sentence. It is also the only choice that does notchange the meaning of the sentence. It omits the fact that this is "aproblem” and also "that it detracts from streamlining" because thatinformation is not essential to the meaning.Choice 1 says that these fish have trouble opening their mouths whileswimming, which is not true. Choice 2, that streamlining prevents fish fromslowing down, may be true, but it is not mentioned in this sentence. The fishare slowed down when they open their mouths, which reduces streamlining. Choice3, that streamlining slows the fishes' breathing, is also not mentioned. 8. ○ 3This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is channel. It ishighlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 3, "direct."Channel here is used as a verb, meaning to "move" or"push." 9. ○ 2This is a FactualInformation question asking for specific information that can be found in thepassage. The correct answer is choice 2, "make efficient use of watercurrents." Paragraph 8 explicitly states: "Perhaps most important ofall to these and other fast swimmers is their ability to sense and make use ofswirls and eddies (circular currents) in the water. They can glide past eddiesthat would slow them down and then gain extra thrust by "pushing off"the eddies. Scientists and engineers are beginning to study this ability offishes in the hope of designing more efficient propulsion systems forships." The other choices are not mentioned in connection with theperformance of ships. 10. ○ 3This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information thatcan be found in paragraph 9. The correct answer is choice 3, "They canswim in waters that are much colder than their own bodies." That paragraphsays, "A bluefin tuna in water of 7°C (45°F) can maintain a coretemperature of over 25°C (77"F)." So it is clear that choice C iscorrect. Choice 1 is not stated in the paragraph. Choice 2 is contradicted bythe paragraph. Choice 4 is true of billfish, not bluefin tuna. 11. ○2This is an Insert Text question. You can see the four black squares inparagraph 6 that represent the possible answer choices here. The last sentenceof paragraph 5 is also reproduced below.Again, supersonic jets havesimilar features. Because they are alwaysswimming, tunas simply have to open their mouths and water is forced in andover their gills. Accordingly, they havelost most of the muscles that other fishes use to suck in water and push itpast the gills. In fact, tunas must swim to breathe.Theymust also keep swimming to keep from sinking, since most have largely or completelylost the swim bladder, the gas-filled sac that helps most other fish remainbuoyant. The sentence provided, "Consequently,tunas do not need to suck in water," is best inserted at square 2. Thesentence provides an explanation for the muscle loss described in the sentencethat follows square 2 and is a result of the fact described in the precedingsentence, which says that because the fish are always swimming, they only haveto open their mouths to suck in water. Thus if the provided sentence is insertedat square 2, it provides a logical bridge between cause and effect. Thesentence makes no logical sense anywhere else. 12.Reducing Water Resistance:1, 4, 5
IncreasingThrust: 2, 7This is a Fill in a Table question. It is completed correctly below. Thecorrect choices for the "Reducing water resistance" column are 1, 4,and 5. Choices 2 and 7 belong in the "Increasing thrust" column.Choices 3 and 6 should not be used in either column.



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