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托福听力听写训练营8营4组GTuna的2011年4月29日作业

2011-04-29 14:39 三立在线 admin

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摘要:Minerals中文第一遍 8:308:53 开始我首先要感谢金博士邀请我到这里来。 虽然我不是一个地质学家,但是我已经收集矿石很多年了。 我所收集到的矿石多种多样,因为我是到世界各地去寻

Minerals——中文第一遍
8:30——8:53
开始我首先要感谢金博士邀请我到这里来。
虽然我不是一个地质学家,但是我已经收集矿石很多年了。
我所收集到的矿石多种多样,因为我是到世界各地去寻找它们。
今天我带来了一些种类给大家看。
在我讨论过每一个之后,会将它传给你们看,让你们能够更近的看到。
你们也知道,FB是最丰富的矿石,我将它们分成很多不同的类型。
这第一个标本是O,要注意它的颜色多变,从白色粉色一直到红色。
这个像玻璃一样的是在Canic岩石上发现的,事实上,我是在新墨西哥的异彩采集旅程中发现它的。
这下一个将要传送的标本是微斜长石,也叫做天河石。
你能够通过良率的颜色分辨它,而且它经常被用作宝石,且非常的吸引人。
最后这个样本全部是斜长石,有一些斜长石是很少见的,所以我对于我的收集种类之多而感到自豪。
我还带来了一些大型矿物标本的切片,如果你们现在把灯打开,我就把它们给你们看。
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Minerals——英文第一遍
8:55——9:24
I would like to begin by thanking Dr. Kim for inviting me to be here today.
Although I am not a geologist, I have been collected minerals for years.
My collection is really diversed because I have traveled all over the world to find them.
Today I brought a few specimens for you to see.
After I discuss each one, I will pass it around so that you can look at it more closely.
As you know, Fires Bars are the most abundant minerals, and I divided it into a number of types.
These first samples are O. Notice that they vary in color from white to pink to red.
This glassy one is found above Canic rock, in fact, I found it is New Mexico on a collecting trip.
This next sample that I will pass around is a microline mineral, also called amazonite.
You can identify it by its bright green colour.
It's often used in jewelry and really is quite attractive.
These final samples are all plagioclase FB.
Many plagioclases are very rare, so I am particularly proud of the variety in my collection.
I also brought a few slices of some larger mineral samples. And if you turn up the lights now, I would like to show them to you.
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Climate——中文第一遍
9:45——10:10
今天我要说的是地球最近一次的主要气候变化发生在上一次的冰川期结束时。
但在此前,我们先回顾一下我们对于一般的环境变化的认识。
首先,我们定义了气候是指在相当长的一段时期内基本不变的天气模式。
通常而言,气候变化一半是由于地球表面的能量平衡被搅乱了。
太阳能以阳光的形式进入地球大气层,并以热能的形式通过地球表面进行辐射。
地面,水和冰,每一种物体对能量的改变是不同的。
这一系统是相当的复杂,以至于当今最先进的计算机模型也只能证明是接近而已。
它也不够发达到可以证明那些关于气候变化原因的假设。
当然,那不会阻止我们进行猜测,例如,火山活动就可能是改变其后的一个因素。
当一个大型的火山喷发的时候,它将会产生数吨的微粒扩散到大气中,这些颗粒将会反射阳光。
由于更少的阳光进入能量转换系统中,结果将地球表面就会变得更冷。
当然,这只是全球气候变化的一个可能的机制,在我们的预测中完整的解释包含了很多不同的机制同时起作用。
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Climate——英文第一遍
10:15——10:45
Today I want to talk about the earth's last major climatic shift at the end of the ice age.
But first let's back up a moment and review what we know about clamatic change in general.
First, we defined climate as consistent pattern of weather over significant periods of time.
In general, changes in climate occur when the energy balance of the earth is disturbed.
Solar energy enters the earth's atmosphere as light and heat.
Land, water and ice each affects energy exchange differently.
The system is so complex that today our best computer models are only proved proximations and are not sophisticated enough to test hypothesis about the causes of climatic change.
Of course, that doesn't keep us from speculating.
For instence, volcanic activities is one mechanism that might affect climatic change.
When large volcanos erupt, they disperse tons of particals into the upper atmosphere, where the particals then reflect light.
Since less light enter into the system of energy exchange, the result would be a cooling of the earth's surface.
Of course, this is just one posible mechanism of global climate change, in our probability a complete explination would involve several different mechanisms operateing at the same time.
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地球——中文第一遍
11:50——12:20
我很高兴你们关于地球内部组成的调查所提出的问题。
事实上,这个将是你们下一次阅读作业的题目,所以在下课前几分钟我来稍微介绍一下。
是在这个时机早些时候的一些地质学家的重要发现使得科学家们到现在能够发展出这么多精确的地球内部图像。
第一个重要的发现时S波,记住这是由地震所产生的震动。
科学家们发现它们能够在地球内部传播几千公里,这一发现使得地质学家可以研究地球的内部。
你看,这个研究评述了这个震动有两种形式,压缩波compression或地震纵波P Wave,横波shear或S Wave。
研究人员发现,P波会在液体和固体介质中传播,而S波只能在固体中传播。
在1906年,英国地质学家发现P波在一定深度时会减慢,但是可以继续传播到更深。
相反,S波就会消失或是被反射回来。
所以他就总结说这个深度就是固体地幔与液体地心的边界。
三年以后,另外一个在地幔与地壳之间边界也发现了。
还有很多关于地球的知识我们需要学习。
例如,地质学家们都知道地心是热的,根据的是从火山流出来的融化的岩浆,但是我们还不确定这些热量的来源是什么。
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地球——英文第一遍
12:30——13:00
I am glad you brought out the question of our investigations into the make up the earth's interior.
In fact, since this is the topic of your reading assignment for the next time, let me spend these last few minutes of the class talking about it.
There were several important discoveries in the early part of this century that help geologists to develip more accurate picture of the earth's interior.
The first key discovery has to do with singhsment of waves. Remember, they are the vibrations caused by earthquake.
Well, scientists found that thay travel thousands of miles through the earth's interior.
This discovery enable geologists to study the inner parts of the earth.
You see, the study reviewed that these vibrations were two types, compression or P waves and Shear or S waves.
And researchers found that P waves travel through both Liquids and Solids, while S waves only travel through Solid matters.
In 1906 a British geologist discovered that P waves slow down at a certain depth but keep travelling deeper. On the other hand S waves either disappeared or were reflected back.
So he concluded that the depth marked the boundry between the solid mantle and the liquid core.
Three years later, another boundry was discovered that between the mantle and the earth's crust.
There are still a lot to be learned about the earth, for instance, geologists know that the core is hot. Evidence of this is the molten lava that flows out the volcanos, but we are still not sure what the source of the heat is.


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